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Thursday, 4 October 2018

Bharat nu Bandharan in Gujarati 30 imp Question

Bharat nu Bandharan in Gujarati 30 imp Question By: Vijay Jadav

A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchase securities. These investors may be retail or institutional in nature.

Mutual funds have advantages and disadvantages compared to direct investing in individual securities. The primary advantages of mutual funds are that they provide economies of scale, a higher level of diversification, they provide liquidity, and they are managed by professional investors. On the negative side, investors in a mutual fund must pay various fees and expenses.

Primary structures of mutual funds include open-end funds, unit investment trusts, and closed-end funds. Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are open-end funds or unit investment trusts that trade on an exchange. Mutual funds are also classified by their principal investments as money market funds, bond or fixed income funds, stock or equity funds, hybrid funds or other. Funds may also be categorized as index funds, which are passively managed funds that match the performance of an index, or actively managed funds. Hedge funds are not mutual funds; hedge funds cannot be sold to the general public and are subject to different government regulations.

The first modern investment funds (the precursor of today's mutual funds) were established in the Dutch Republic. In response to the financial crisis of 1772–1773, Amsterdam-based businessman Abraham (or Adriaan) van Ketwich formed a trust named Eendragt Maakt Magt ("unity creates strength"). His aim was to provide small investors with an opportunity to diversify.[1][2]

Mutual funds were introduced to the United States in the 1890s. Early U.S. funds were generally closed-end funds with a fixed number of shares that often traded at prices above the portfolio net asset value. The first open-end mutual fund with redeemable shares was established on March 21, 1924 as the Massachusetts Investors Trust. (It is still in existence today and is now managed by MFS Investment Management.)

In the United States, closed-end funds remained more popular than open-end funds throughout the 1920s. In 1929, open-end funds accounted for only 5% of the industry's $27 billion in total assets.

After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the U.S. Congress passed a series of acts regulating the securities markets in general and mutual funds in particular.

The Securities Act of 1933 requires that all investments sold to the public, including mutual funds, be registered with the SEC and that they provide prospective investors with a prospectus that discloses essential facts about the investment.
The Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 requires that issuers of securities, including mutual funds, report regularly to their investors; this act also created the Securities and Exchange Commission, which is the principal regulator of mutual funds.
The Revenue Act of 1936 established guidelines for the taxation of mutual funds.
The Investment Company Act of 1940 established rules specifically governing mutual funds.
These new regulations encouraged the development of open-end mutual funds (as opposed to closed-end funds).

Growth in the U.S. mutual fund industry remained limited until the 1950s, when confidence in the stock market returned. By 1970, there were approximately 360 funds with $48 billion in assets.[3]

The introduction of money market funds in the high interest rate environment of the late 1970s boosted industry growth dramatically. The first retail index fund, First Index Investment Trust, was formed in 1976 by The Vanguard Group, headed by John Bogle; it is now called the "Vanguard 500 Index Fund" and is one of the world's largest mutual funds. Fund industry growth continued into the 1980s and 1990s.
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